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Crazy Punctuation II 'Guillemets'. (Not 'The Guillemots')

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Guillemets (pronounced /ˈɡɪləmɛt/, or /ɡiːəˈmeɪ/ after French [ɡijmɛ]), also called angle quotes, are line segments, pointed as if arrows (« or »), sometimes forming a complementary set of punctuation marks used as a form of quotation mark.

The symbol at either end – double « and » or single ‹ and › – is a guillemet. They are used in a number of languages to indicate speech. They resemble (but are not the same as) the symbols for lesser than, greater than (for the single <), and for left and right bit shifts in some programming languages,[1][2] as well as rewind and fast forward on various media players, such as home VCR and DVD players or handheld MP3 players. Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 Uses 2.1 Direction 3 Guillemets in computing 3.1 Programming Languages 3.2 Typing "«" and "»" on computers 3.3 Unicode 3.4 UML 3.5 Mail merge 3.6 Guillemet vs. guillemot 4 See also 5 References [edit] Etymology The word is a diminutive of the French name Guillaume (the equivalent of which in English is William), after the French printer and punchcutter Guillaume Le Bé (1525–1598).[3][4] Some languages derive their word for guillemets analogously; for example, the Irish term is Liamóg, from Liam 'William' and a diminutive suffix. [edit] Uses Main article: Quotation mark, non-English usage Used pointing outwards («like this») to indicate speech in these languages and regions: Albanian Arabic Armenian Belarusian Breton Bulgarian (rarely used, „...“ is official, but "..." prevails) Catalan Chinese (《 and 》 are used to indicate a book or album title) Estonian Franco-Provençal French (separated by non-breaking spaces « like this », except in Switzerland) Galician Greek Italian North Korean (in South Korea " is used) Latvian Lithuanian Norwegian Persian Polish usually to indicate a quote inside a quote Portuguese (European; now largely replaced by quotation marks) Romanian, only to indicate a quotation within a quotation Russian, and some languages of the former Soviet Union using Cyrillic script Spanish (although their use is uncommon outside Spain) Swiss languages Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Used pointing inwards (»like this«) to indicate speech in these languages: Croatian (rarely used, „...“ is official, but "..." prevails) Czech (marked usage, „...“ prevails) Danish („...“ is also used) German (Except in Switzerland. „...“ is also used) Hungarian (only as a secondary quote, inside a section already marked by the usual quotes) Serbian (marked usage, „...“ prevails) Slovak (marked usage, „...“ prevails) Slovene Swedish (rarely used; "..." prevails) Used pointing right (»like this») to indicate speech in these languages: Finnish [edit] Direction A guillemet is sometimes used to indicate direction, for example: fast forward button on a media player, or fast rewind indicated by the complementary guillemet a chevron on road signage to show road direction, or multiple chevrons pointing in the same direction for emphasis as an alternative to an ellipsis in a document, for example to indicate additional content. The guillemet is balanced in the spine height of the line for most fonts, so it is more visible than an ellipsis. [edit] Guillemets in computing [edit] Programming Languages The Perl 6 programming language uses « » and < > to combine quoting and subscripting. %table has the same meaning as %table{'name'}, and %table«name» has the same meaning as %table{"name"}.

In the RPL programming language, guillemets are used to demarcate the beginning and end of a program block.
[edit] Typing "«" and "»" on computers

Windows users can create the guillemet "«" by holding Alt + 0171 or Alt + 7598 or Alt + 686 and "»" by holding Alt + 0187 or Alt + 7599 or Alt + 687. With a US International Keyboard Alt Gr + [ and Alt Gr + ] can also be used. The characters are standard on French Canadian keyboards and some others.

Macintosh users can type "«" as Option-Backslash and "»" as Option-Shift-Backslash. (This applies to all English-language keyboard layouts supplied with the operating system, e.g. "Australian", "British", "Canadian", "Irish", "Irish Extended", "U.S." and "U.S. Extended". Other language layouts may differ.)

For users of Unix-like operating systems running the X Window System, creation of the guillemet depends on a number of factors including the keyboard layout that is in effect. For example, with US International Keyboard layout selected a user would type Alt Gr + [ for "«" and Alt Gr + "]" for "»". On some configurations they can be written by typing "«" as Alt Gr + z and "»" as Alt Gr + x. With the compose key, press Compose + < + < and Compose + > + >. Additionally with the ibus input method framework enabled, users may enter these characters into those applications that accept it by using Ctrl + Shift + U followed by their unicode codepoints: either AB or BB, respectively.

On computers, operating systems, or keyboards without support for guillemets, these characters are sometimes produced with double inequality characters (<< or >>) or double chevrons (〈〈 or 〉〉).
[edit] Unicode

In Unicode, the characters are encoded at U+00AB «​ left-pointing double angle quotation mark (HTML: « «) and at U+00BB »​ right-pointing double angle quotation mark (HTML: » »). Despite their names, the characters are mirrored when used in right-to-left contexts.
[edit] UML

Guillemets are used in Unified Modeling Language to indicate a stereotype of a standard element.
[edit] Mail merge

Microsoft Word uses guillemets when creating mail merges. Microsoft use these punctuation marks to denote a mail merge "field", such as «Title», «AddressBlock» or «GreetingLine». Then on the final printout, the guillemet-marked tags are replaced by the corresponding data outlined for that field by the user.
[edit] Guillemet vs. guillemot

In Adobe Systems font software, its file format specifications, and in all fonts derived from these that contain the characters, the word is incorrectly spelled ‘guillemot’ (a malapropism: guillemot is actually a species of seabird) in the names of the two glyphs: guillemotleft and guillemotright. Adobe acknowledges the error.[5]

Likewise, X11 mistakenly calls them ‘XK_guillemotleft’ and ‘XK_guillemotright’ in the file keysymdef.h.

Nicholas Byrne: Hosier (2010)

“Drawing is the basis of my work, though I don't often have one image that I refer to in making something. Each painting is a different thing where an interior develops. I have an aesthetic idea or sensation of what this is, but it's intuitively led. With Hosier and Cropper I wanted to make illustrations of the 'sinuous line' which is a constituent element of the Rococo period. I'd read a passage in Jean Starobinski's The Invention of Liberty that takes a picture of William Hogarth writing on sinuosity, about 'leading the eye in a kind of chase'. From tending to limit himself to writing about the 'pure geometry of the spiral' Hogarth goes on to confess an erotic origin to his taste for the sinuous line: a childhood memory of a dancer with 'a ribbon entwined around a staff.' It’s interesting how his desire could be felt in particular distances.”